Monday, February 28, 2011

Top 5 Famous DNA Tests

DNA tests are not usually the major media about the media world, but that does not mean they are not important or high profile cases of DNA evidence to report. In fact, over the past few decades DNA testing has played an increasing role in the way of analyzing the past and how we interpret our future. Whether the determation of paternity through DNA tests for paternity or in establishing wider links of DNA, and forensic DNA cases, our top 5 DNA tests reveal how relevant famous DNA testing really is.

1. James Brown - The 'Godfather of Soul' James Brown was named the subject of one of the highest profile cases of DNA testing in recent history. The trial examined whether children alleged the musician was actually fathered by him, and a series of independent tests for paternity DNA were processed in order to establish paternity. Test of 12 submitted, only two have returned to be positively identified as descendants of Brown - one of whom is now a woman of 45 years.

2. Eddie Murphy - Modern comedy legend Eddie Murphy was involved in a high profile case for DNA testing in particular caught the attention of the media and full of bright column inches. His trial was to establish the paternity of the daughter of Melanie Brown (aka Mel B) of Spice Girls fame during a separation process. Was determined after harvest and processing of samples from the child, the mother and alleged father, Eddie Murphy was indeed the father of the son of his ex-partner.

3. Anna Nicole Smith - TV personality and model Anna Nicole Smith was pushed to the forefront of media scrutiny if the evidence of high-profile celebrities of DNA, where it was the paternity of her daughter to the question. Initially, the partner of Howard K. Stern was nominated as the likely father on national television, prompting the media storm surrounding the testing process - although the methods of DNA paternity test proved to be ex-husband Larry Birkhead as the biological father of the child.

4. Marie Antoinette - Queen and icon of French history, Marie Antoinette was recently the subject of DNA testing and advanced sampling techniques. DNA from hair is supposed to have been to Antoinette was collected and tested with DNA obtained from the heart of Louis XVII. Thanks to advances in processing technologies of DNA, the samples were able to match to determine that indeed a genetic link between DNA samples, confirming the identity of the hair.

5. Thomas Jefferson - Thomas Jefferson was the third President of the United States of America, and is widely regarded as one of the main founders of the modern constitution. However, his image has been somewhat tarnished by allegations of origin for over 200 years who had children with his slave Sally Hemmings. After DNA samples were recovered from the relevant parties, determined that the child alleged Eston Hemmings was in the sharing of genetic material on the male side with Thomas Jefferson, although no firm conclusions were drawn as to whether this subject was with Jefferson personally.

In conclusion, it is clear to see in the above examples, the power of DNA testing and the role it has and will continue in our lives.

Sunday, February 27, 2011

The Importance of DNA Testing

As everyone knows we all have a unique DNA pattern that we inherited from our biological parents and is equal to theirs in the genetic code. People can check whether they are biological children of their parents by going to paternal DNA testing. Is mostly accomplished by parents who are unsure if the biological father of the child being lifted. A DNA paternity test has a rate of nearly 99.99% accuracy, and no matter what its outcome can not be bad regardless of the parents accept it or not. Currently, DNA testing of parents is the right way to determine paternity of a child.

In today's world where trust has become a rare word, more and more people are going for a DNA paternity test. It is the most scientific and precise to establish any doubt about the paternity of the child. Most often it is used to settle disputes relating to the property. Popularly used to check if the child or children are the heir of the father in case of doubt about the child's heirs. Or in cases where the father doubts that his wife is cheating on him, in such situations, DNA paternity testing is mostly used.

Most DNA paternity testing is done in absolute secrecy and confidentiality. Usually, within five days of test results are out. In most countries and states, the parental DNA testing is legal, but you should check out local laws before going to the test. In earlier days, the only way to prove paternity was to examine the physical similarities between parents and children. But after medical developments, has become very simple to decide about the paternity of the child. It's almost a painless way of medical examination.

The DNA of the parents is very important to take a DNA paternity test, especially the father. All countries have different rules and laws relating to DNA testing, but in almost all countries is legal. A DNA paternity test is accepted throughout the world today because of its accuracy and authenticity. It is especially useful in resolving legal issues. But before going to a DNA paternity test, one must ensure that DNA testing centers stock up on all the samples and records in a protected area with income under close surveillance. It is very useful to dispel any doubt about the paternity of the child.

DNA is not only used in the establishment of paternity, but it is very useful to solve criminal cases as well. As you already know that people around the world have a unique DNA is a single entity for the same. The use of DNA evidence in solving criminal cases are called forensic DNA testing. In this method, the defendant's DNA and DNA found at the scene compared. If they match, it means he or she is convicted. Forensic DNA tests are becoming more useful today to solve crimes and many police forces around the world are using.

Reasons For DNA Testing

DNA testing is becoming more and more popular as a way of catching criminals and establishing family relationships. But why is that DNA testing is particularly favored by blood tests and other methods of detecting parentage and what are the most significant reasons for its current use in both medical and legal circles?

1. DNA is unique to the individual concerned

Good to know that we are all unique. Our DNA is completely different from any other person anywhere in the world. It's like our own individual serial number - while we may share certain digits with others, which are essentially unique in the makeup of our DNA. What this means is that DNA testing is an important tool to identify genetic relationships, because when we share a number of DNA matches with someone who is accused of being a relative, who is usually very safe to assume that there is a genetic link . Moreover, this also helps to support DNA testing for legal purposes, where it is possible to use DNA as a strong measure to support alleged guilt in serious crimes such as murder and sexual assault.

2. DNA testing is easy to prove

DNA samples can be obtained very easily, making it ideal for testing young children. A buccal swab of saliva or hair of the head may be sufficient to provide the DNA necessary for a paternity test in order to establish a biological relationship between the alleged father and child. Instead of having to test blood types or other forms of identification of family relationships, the DNA samples are quick and easy to take of any age and pose no threat to the donor of the sample.

3. With great detail to facilitate comparison

Due to the complex nature of DNA, it is possible to use genetic data match as a highly compelling set of genetic inheritance. Add to this the fact that there is new alleles may be introduced that are not present in the parent or alleged, and it becomes immediately clear whether there is a paternal relationship in place.

4. Allows DNA testing of more distant relatives to determine paternity

DNA testing, frequently used in cases of paternity disputes, can be carried out without the need for a DNA sample from the father. What this means is that, in fact, the father is not necessary to provide a DNA sample which is not available or unwilling to cooperate. Taking the DNA of close family members related to the alleged father may be possible through DNA testing to determine if a relationship does exist.

5. DNA testing is cost effective and relatively fast

DNA testing is becoming more accessible to people worldwide. As competition increases and technology improves, the price of DNA tests have fallen drastically in recent years. This is compounded by the fact that it is fast and relatively stress-free to collect DNA samples and send to the laboratory and the results can be obtained relatively quickly, in just 48 hours.

As we have seen a number of advantages of DNA testing and paternity test which resulted in an increase in demand for this type of testing worldwide.

Thursday, February 24, 2011

DNA Testing for Forensic Purposes

One of the major advances in forensic science has been the use of DNA evidence. This test method has helped solve many crimes would not have been possible decades ago. More important, he has been able to solve crimes with a high degree of precision that results in the avoidance of other insightful or questionable methods of research.

Every human being on earth has genes. These genes are a unit of heredity and is unique for each person. They are made of composites of a number of molecules of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) in a particular sequence that is unique to each person. Thus, a person's genes can be identified and mapped. This is known as DNA analysis.

In the forensic science of DNA from biological samples such as human hair, blood, semen, skin or saliva found at the crime scene is compared with the DNA of the suspect and the comparison can be found if the person suspect is innocent or guilty. This process is called genetic fingerprinting or DNA. The system of DNA profiles usually specify whether the samples at the crime scene is not contaminated, although the technology is developed DNA extraction capabilities have improved greatly.

The first person to be sentenced to life in the UK on the database of DNA profiles was a rapist and murderer by the name of Colin Pitchfork. In the years 1983 and 1986, the bodies of two young teenagers were found. These girls had been raped and strangled in a small town of Narborough, when each of the girls was to go home alone at the end of the day. There were no witnesses to the crime, but DNA profiles of samples taken from the scene of two murders confirmed that the crime was perpetrated by the same person. The investigations led to the arrest of Richard Buckland, a young boy who confessed to killing the girl in second and denied he had anything to do with the murder of the first child. The DNA profile of Richard Buckland did not match DNA samples taken at the scene of two murders. Subsequent investigations led to the arrest of Colin Pitchfork in September 1987. The DNA profile of the blood sample from Colin match the DNA profile of the murderer of two girls. Colin Pitchfork confessed and was sentenced to life imprisonment in 1988 and became the first person to be convicted on evidence obtained from DNA profiles. Richard Buckland was the first person to prove his innocence of the alleged crimes that DNA profiles.

DNA testing can be performed on samples of various materials obtained from the crime scene. The standard samples can be blood stains from clothing, tissues and tampons, clothing such as hats, scarves, underwear, cigarette butts, gum, hair (at least four or five hairs with roots hair), post-mortem tissues. Reference samples were obtained from buccal swabs (swabs of saliva taken from the cheek inside the mouth), blood, semen or sperm, or umbilical cord dry. Success rates vary depending on the samples and conditions that are in preservation methods also vary from samples kept in dry ice to tubes simple paper envelope.
National DNA Index (NDIS) has thousands of records of DNA profiles from samples taken at the crime scene and DNA profiles and samples of bodily fluids provided by known criminals. These data have been used to relate and solve crimes and has resulted in more than seventy thousand convictions. The NDIS and departments DNAAU-II have helped in the search for missing persons and also in the identification of unidentified bodies.

forensic investigations based on DNA analysis have come a long way since the early studies were conducted during the 1980's. Paternity tests can confirm that the alleged father is a father with a hundred percent accurate and can conclude that the alleged father is the father with 99% accuracy. The results are accurate, even when the mother is not tested. Infidelity or ancestry can also be followed on the basis of DNA profiles.

A lot of innocent victims are released after DNA profiles showed that they were not related to the crime. As a test methodologies are more refined, Forensic DNA testing will cement itself as an important tool in the investigation of crime.

DNA Stimulation

DNA stimulation is something you need to experiment when their DNA to be repaired due to several reasons. Before entering the stimulation of DNA that it really is, would look at how DNA is repaired. There are several ways by which a DNA is damaged and has now become one of the main concepts of cancer biology. DNA damage occurs due to prolonged exposure to radiation such as ultraviolet rays, X rays or other radioactive rays. You can also occur due to thermal or chemical poisoning, and interrupts. These are the main reasons that cause DNA damage and therefore some loss of genes or important feature of them is lost. This DNA damage has to be stimulated again. Only this will ensure a smooth and normal life.

The DNA damage is a rare thing. It happens every day in all parts of the body. A normal person can not know if their DNA is damaged or not. But only the individual knows that cell DNA is damaged and must be repaired. In a typical day more than 70,000 damage occurs DNS. In all cases, the cell tries to repair multiple processes. This process of repairing damaged DNA is termed as the stimulation of DNA. DNA per cell stimulation occurs when a cell is damaged. Cell DNA orders near the damaged DNA to link to it or partner with it and therefore stimulates the damaged DNA. Thus, the DNA is stimulated and normalcy is restored. But this is a long process.

In today's progress in science and technology, no need to wait so long to get your DNA stimulated. Will be a matter of hours. Yes, there has been research in this area and has been shown that external factors can influence the stimulation of DNA. We found that DNA can be stimulated if the frequency delta is applied. At these frequencies, recovery is rapid and the stimulation of DNA occurs at a rapid pace, ensuring rapid recovery and wellness.

The average frequency-delta works very, very efficient and follows a healing process that can not be understood very clearly. The main hypothesis is that when two different waveforms are applied to each ear, the brain gets directly from the frequency and creates its own frequency which is possibly the difference between the frequencies of application. This frequency is in the middle Delta region and can not be heard. It is also often now will ensure that DNA healing occurs quickly.

When a person submits to this frequency, so you can see the changes that occur in your mind and body. It takes only minutes. The stimulation of DNA has several advantages. The first is that there is no physical work or training which has to be done. Simply insert your head for a few minutes is sufficient. The next thing you see is that it repairs, stimulates the DNA very efficiently and much faster than any other process. You can also see that since our body generates an answer, probably will work each and every time. Justify Full

Wednesday, February 23, 2011

Description of DNA Technology

Undoubtedly, DNA technology has revolutionized the world of science. Scientific fields of biochemistry, genetics, biology and forensic medicine, even changed by the use of this powerful technology. Deoxyribonucleic acid, known as DNA is the genetic material of an organism. This technology has solved many mysteries behind evolution, disease and even human behavior.

DNA technology is also widely used to verify biological relationships and the identity of persons living or dead. Major advances in DNA analysis have allowed DNA tests to be completed shortly.

There are many technologies used in DNA testing. The most common of which are electrophoresis, short tandem repeats (STRs), Chain Reaction (PCR), sequencing of mitochondrial DNA Restrictive Fragment Length Polymorphism or RFLP. A brief description of each technology is provided below.

Electrophoresis is a technique in separating DNA fragments by size through the introduction of an electric field in the DNA molecule. The DNA molecule is in a viscous medium, known as the gel. longer molecules and smaller separate due to their different abilities to pass through the gel.

Short tandem repeats (STR) is a type of DNA analysis conducted to examine specific areas in the DNA. All people have differences in certain regions of DNA. These differences are used to determine the identity of an individual.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a technique used to create exact replicas of DNA. Millions of repetitions are created allowing DNA testing to be performed on samples that are too small, like a pair of skin cells. The sample, although it should not be contaminated by DNA from another source.

The sequencing of mitochondrial DNA. There are two types of cells in DNA - nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA. There are cases where a sample is too old and no longer has nuclear DNA. MtDNA sequencing is a technique used to recover the mitochondrial DNA. Forensic uses of this technology on cases that are still unsettled after so many years.

Restrictive Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) DNA technology is one of the first technologies used in DNA testing and is no longer widely used. RFLP analysis of different lengths of DNA fragments from the digestion of a sample with a restriction endonuclease enzyme.

How Is Dna Testing Done

DNA testing is done for many different reasons. DNA evidence can link an alleged criminal to the crime scene. DNA paternity and maternity testing can identify the child's father or mother. DNA relationship testing can determine if two individuals are siblings, total or partial. DNA testing can establish the ancestry of ethnic and genealogical roots.

How do the DNA test depends on the desired results and available samples. DNA fingerprint (or profile, as it also known) is the process of analysis and comparison of two DNA samples. Only identical twins have the exact DNA sequence itself, all other DNA is unique. This causes the DNA in the best way to bind people together or to places where they have been.

The entire DNA chain is very long, just in time to examine all the same. Human DNA consists of about 3. 3 billion base pairs. The differences between samples of DNA occur only in small segments of DNA - the rest of DNA is very similar. DNA testing focuses on those segments that are known to differ from person to person.

As DNA testing has evolved over time, testing methods have become more accurate and able to work with DNA samples from much smaller. The first DNA analysis was performed using drops dime size of the blood. Today's tests can extract DNA from the back of a licked stamp. The DNA must be extracted from any sample is given. DNA must be isolated and purified before it can be compared. In essence, it must be "open" the cell in which it exists. Cell walls are usually dissolved with a detergent. The proteins in the cell are digested by enzymes. After this process, DNA is purified, concentrated, and tested.

DNA testing is more often now using a process called "short tandem repeats, or STR. Human DNA has several regions of repeated sequences. These regions are in the same place in the DNA chain, but the repeated sequences are different for each individual. The "short" tandem repeats (repeated sequences of two to five base pairs in length) have been shown to provide excellent results of DNA profiles. STR is high accuracy - the possibility of misidentification of one of several billion.

Monday, February 21, 2011

How To Get A DNA Test

There are many reasons why you might want to get a DNA test. Although often see DNA testing in forensic uses television, one of the main reasons to get a DNA test to determine paternity. DNA testing for paternity is conclusively determined whether a man is the father of a child in particular. DNA testing and maternity testing brothers are also available. For those who are interested in the origins of the genealogy or ethnic origin, many DNA labs now offer DNA ancestry tests.

If you are wondering how to get a DNA test, you can find quite a few DNA labs online. It is true that there are walk-in DNA labs scattered across the country, but the use of a provider of online DNA testing is one of the most convenient ways to get a DNA test. For DNA paternity testing, online labs usually send you a free DNA sample collection kit. Once you have collected your DNA samples, which returned with payment to the DNA laboratory.

Most testing for relationships, like paternity, maternity and fraternity, is also divided into DNA testing for peace of mind and DNA testing for legal proceedings. You can get a DNA test for peace of mind with ease. The cost is generally lower and you can collect your own DNA samples at home. But if the results of DNA tests should be used in legal situations, then it is important to purchase legally admissible DNA testing laboratory. To get a DNA test to be accepted by the court, DNA samples must be collected by a neutral third party. The third part is there to confirm the identity of the donor DNA and to ensure that the chain of custody rules are respected.

Once the DNA samples were collected, returned to the laboratory for analysis. results of DNA tests that would normally be received in just five days. For an extra fee, some DNA labs offer a span of three days of the test results. Test results are usually mailed to the recipient. Some online DNA labs offer online results.

How will the results depend on the ordered DNA test. For example, a DNA paternity test, the alleged father is either excluded or not excluded. Paternity and maternity test provide conclusive results. DNA tests of brotherhood are more complex and the results will be in the form of a percentage chance of relationship. Results of DNA ancestry tests vary by provider. In all cases, you should do some research online ahead of time for you to know that he has ordered test provides the kind of results you need.

Saturday, February 19, 2011

PCR Contamination

It is worth considering the contamination at the beginning of this discussion because this is a well known limitation. Unfortunately, contamination of importance in pcr is often underestimated. Dna pcr copies efficiently if the initial dna is in good condition. Dna single entity be millions or billions of dna molecules in about three hours. The pcr process is sometimes compared to a xerox machine and made many copies. Although initially, it is a useful comparison, does not communicate the true nature, the chain reaction pcr. In pcr, the original dna is copied, then copies are copied, copied the copies and so on. This results in a dramatic increase in the amount of dna that could not easily be carried out on the analogy of photocopies. The pcr process deserves classification as a "chain reaction", as it has much in common with other chain reactions, such as avalanches.

The pcr is also very similar to what happens when a clinical infection. Doctors have known for many years that a single germ cells (bacteria or virus), contamination of a wound can cause a massive infection. Similarly, a dna molecule can contaminate (infect) a pcr and become a major problem. The ability of small amounts of dna to produce false and misleading is well known and well documented within the research community, where the technology originated. Anyone who has caught a cold of unknown origin or who have an allergy to pollen must have some sense of ease with pcr are contaminated. In fact, it is probably easier to contaminate a pcr to catch a cold because unlike our bodies, itp immune system failure. The only protection that itp is the technique of the analyst, the use of control samples to monitor pollutants and careful interpretation.

Prevention of false results involves the use of carefully applied controls and techniques. As described below, controls and techniques rarely can ensure that contamination has not influenced the results. In forensic dna testing, some of the worst scenarios scientifically cases can be prevented by keeping the dna samples of individuals well known outside the reach of other items of evidence in all stages. Most forensic dna laboratories to perform negative controls, blank samples are often detected contaminants in the laboratory. Blanks contaminant detection, dna profiles showing partial or total representing contaminants. Moreover, the blank may not show the profile, in line with, but does not prove that the contamination did not occur. Unfortunately, some forensic dna laboratories ignore its controls. In favor of some of the controls by using special equipment in them, or by failing to conduct throughout the proceedings. These practices are dangerous, especially when an important test sample has a low amount of dna, degraded dna, or not presented as a minimum sample or partial (see below). In summary, while the pcr is a useful research tool, all applications require very careful monitoring.

Forensic DNA Testing

There have been two main types of forensic DNA testing. They are often called, rflp and pcr-based tests, although these terms are not very descriptive. Overall, the rflp test requires large amounts of dna and the dna must be degraded. Evidence of the crime scene that is old or present in small amounts is often unsuitable for rflp testing. Hot, humid conditions may accelerate dna degradation rendering it unsuitable for rflp in a relatively short period of time. Pcr-based testing often requires less dna than rflp testing and dna may be partially degraded, rather than in the case of rflp. However, pcr still has the sample size and degradation of the limitations that can sometimes be underestimated. Pcr tests are also extremely sensitive to contamination of dna at the crime scene and lab tests. During pcr, contaminants may be extended up to one billion times their original concentration.

Contamination may affect the results of pcr, particularly in the absence of management techniques and appropriate controls pollution. The pcr is less direct and more prone to errors rflp. However, the pcr has tended to replace rflp in forensic evidence especially because the pcr-based tests are faster and more sensitive.

Friday, February 18, 2011

DNA Introduction

The explanation of DNA testing is intended as an introduction for those who have limited experience in biological science. Although basically correct, this explanation involves liberal use of illustration and in some cases, over-simplification. Although intended to be informative, this is the brief and incomplete explanation of a complex issue. The author suggests consulting the scientific literature for more rigorous information and alternative viewpoints.