Saturday, June 18, 2011

Forensic DNA And Serology

Determining the type and characteristics of arterial blood tests, examination of blood stains, and preparing statements and presentations at trial are the functions of primary job of a forensic dna and serology, who also analyzes semen, saliva, bodily fluids may or may not be involved with DNA testing. Admittedly, however, many crime labs, there may be a clear distinction between office and job function.

A lab in particular can not have a serologist in its staff, its functions are performed by an expert criminologist, a biochemist, a forensic biologist, or another technician. These personnel usually have a bachelor's or master's degree, while a chief serologist possess a doctor or a Ph.D. is rare to find serologists boss, and the degree seems to be common. Some states have laws that make serology permissible by law, without the need for the testimony of an expert, whose purpose is to isolate and protect their crime lab technicians.

Other states rely on their chief coroner's office, forensic pathologists, toxicologists or certificate. Professor of biochemistry, hematology, immunology, and are often "borrowed" as experts by the prosecution and defense. In certain specialized areas to be studied blood stain (such as blood spatter analysis), the courts usually qualifies someone as an expert who has no formal education but specialized training and has made a sufficient number of tests and accumulated sufficient benchmarks to demonstrate the basis of their opinion.

Such experts are usually law enforcement, and his testimony is more common in those states that have amended or adopted Frye Coppolino. In addition, blood and bloodstains is an integral part of the crime scenes that a police detective / specialist in blood spots can be found in some jurisdictions, which shows in the final issue, despite that usurps the province of the jury. Federal Rule of Evidence 704 allows this to some degree. The impact of Daubert has led to a situation more in line with Federal Rule of Evidence 702 with a statistical validity and reliability. The probability estimates are often used in the testimony of the blood.

Saturday, June 11, 2011

Cancer: Causes and Effects

Cancer has ravaged our western societies for many decades, but there was a time long ago when cancer was not part of our lexicon. Cancer is a disease caused by man through the introduction of toxic carcinogens, chemicals, pesticides, food preservatives and additives series.

Carcinogens attack the human cells by binding to DNA and either altering cellular metabolism or damaging the DMA directly. Normal DNA is damaged and can not repair itself leads to programmed cell death "of a process called biotransformation in which damaged cells without causing harm to be soluble in water and are flushed from our body. Sometimes the damaged DNA of a cell has no pathway and the cell has no choice but to become cancerous. Cancer tumors are formed when normal biological processes are hindered and the normally aggressive immune system is weak or has weakened.

Some common carcinogens are snuff smoke, asbestos (by inhalation), dioxins, radioactive materials, such as gamma rays, alpha particles (when ingested or inhaled) and x-rays which are highly carcinogenic by their retention human organs. There are many natural carcinogens are aflatoxin B that grows in nuts and stored grain. Another potent carcinogen is formaldehyde, used in embalming and making plastics. In the vinyl chloride manufacturing PCV is used, which is a strong carcinogen.

Carcinogens are also produced by cooking food at high temperature or cooking until the meat well done. Some researchers say that the carcinogens present are so minute that they present no risk to health. Others, especially those in the natural health community say more carcinogens in cooked foods pose no significant threat to health and add to the cancer cell growth in a period of time.

The human body has a special provision to prevent disease through our built in immune system, but a weakened immune system allows deadly carcinogens to get a foot hold in our cells that can damage DNA. Acrylamide, a known carcinogen is created in frying or overheating foods like potato chips, french fries and any other fried foods.

Smoking cigarettes and cigars may cause irreversible damage to human genes. There are more than 4. 000 chemical compounds that are toxic to the human body and are carcinogenic. With all the education available on how deadly smoke think snuff is a smoking-related diseases would be eradicated, but that is not the case. Smoking remains a serious health problem.

With the advent of processed foods came innumerable additives that are foreign to the human body. Additives that add color or taste of food and preservatives that unnaturally extend shelf life of processed foods. All artificial additives are unnatural and may conflict with natural bodily functions. I will not bore you with long scientific names, which can easily be found in any list of ingredients in processed foods. Suffice it to say all processed foods provided to decrease. health.

Our water supply has been tragically compromised by the addition of chemicals added to water in the name of public health. The chlorine in large quantities has been added to most public water supplies to kill germs, ironically, is chlorine adding a foreign chemical in to millions of people you trust. Remember that anything that is not of natural origin becomes a potentially dangerous ingredient in the "all-natural body. The human body reacts positively to natural health foods and natural supplements and negative things for men who do not have natural ingredients in them.

In addition to cancer and potentially cause harmful additives to food preservatives, pesticides and herbicides are freely used to kill and deter insects and disease in our industry products. These chemicals are poinsious for human consumption and studies support an increased cancer risk when consumed. As indicated above, any foreign entity introduced into the human body can be potentially harmful and cancer risk increase.

With this in mind have to put the drugs in the category of foreign material. The drugs are used as sweets in a brainwashed society. Every pill taken offers a challenge to our immune system and our naturally created normal bodily functions. Pharmaceutical products are mostly a mix of man-made material to mask the symptoms of a disease, temporarily eliviate a medical problem. The pill is inevitably a time stamp of "work" or be effective for a period of time so the masking effect disappears and you have to take another pill.

Our new world with a myriad of good intentions has opened a Pandora's box of mutant cancer-causing genetic implications. We are self-inflicting ourselves with poisons that immeasurably produce a hostile environment for our immune system wonderfully created. Cancer in my opinion is a man made creation and could be eliminated if everyone insisted, does not require that only natural ingredients are added to food, water, products, and medicine. Individually you can create your own "cancer-free zone 'for life' natural 'and allowing your body to function as planned," free and clear of Foreign poisons."

Monday, June 6, 2011

Genetic Testing And Screening Ethical Issues

Genetics, a discipline of biology is the science of heredity and variation in living organisms. The fact that living things inherit traits from their parents has been used since prehistoric times to improve crops and animals through selective breeding. However, the modern science of genetics, which seeks to understand the process of inheritance, only began with the work of Gregor Mendel in the mid-nineteenth century.

Genetic testing is one of the important techniques of medical science to detect alterations in genes and chromosomes of an individual. It helps in the diagnosis of genetic diseases, risk prediction of occurrence of the disease and also to identify carriers of genetic disorders.

Genetic testing or screening ethical issues is a procedure to determine changes in the genes, proteins and chromosomes. There are about 20,000 - 25,000 genes in the human genome. Genetic tests are performed to diagnose abnormalities in the content of the genome of an individual who is responsible for causing genetic disorders. Besides the study of genes and chromosomes, genetic testing involving biochemical tests to identify proteins that indicate the anomalous genes.

In genetic testing, the genes of an individual from cells (blood or other bodily fluid samples) were examined for any changes. The possible results are: there can be no removal or addition of bases in the DNA chain. Sometimes a piece of a chromosome or an entire chromosome may be added, deleted or moved. In such situations, the genes can be suppressed or expressed again. An individual can lead to abnormal genes without expressing them or can express genes that lead to genetic disease.

Let's look at the details of some of the common genetic tests,

Prenatal genetic testing:

As the name suggests, prenatal genetic tests are performed to identify genetic disorders in the fetus during pregnancy. Genetic disorders such as Down syndrome, neural tube defects and other chromosomal abnormalities can be detected with this test before birth. If a positive result for either disorder, parents can opt for abortion. Can also be used to determine the sex of the fetus. However, it is illegal, if the abortion is performed after determining the sex of the fetus.

Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD):

preimplantation genetic diagnosis or screening the embryo is an alternative to prenatal testing. Here, genetic testing is performed on embryos before implantation and, sometimes, in the oocytes before fertilization. Generally, an embryo from in vitro fertilization (IVF) is tested before implanting in the uterus. DGP aid in the identification of embryos, which represent a risk for certain genetic disorders. Many couples opt for PGD in place of prenatal diagnosis, to diagnose genetic disorders in advance to avoid the dilemma of abortion.

Newborn genetic screening:

Newborn screening is done to identify genetic genetic disorders in newborns. In this procedure, the baby's DNA sample is studied for defects. Studies were also conducted to confirm the absence of key proteins that are essential for the proper functioning of the body. The early diagnosis of any genetic disorder will be useful in reducing the symptoms that can lead to disability and other chronic diseases.

Predictive Genetic Testing:

predictive testing is done to look for problems that have been inherited from the family. In many cases of genetic disorders, family members with the same disease. In other words, the defective gene in the family. In predictive genetic tests, DNA samples of family members studied to make any common genetic disorder. In general, a comparison between the content of the genome of an individual suffering from the disease and a person who is free of the disease. Thus, the defective gene is marked for further processing and study. It has been found that when a family history of cancer, cancer-causing genes are present among the majority members of the family.